San Francisco Podiatry Video


Thursday, May 30, 2013

What to Consider in a Minimalist Running Shoe

Hi “My Running Doc!”

I recently read the book “Born to Run.”  after reading it, I became intrigued and have decided to try some minimalist running shoes. However a lot of stuff that I read online says that might get injured if I run barefoot or in minimalist shoes. 

As a little background, I am experienced marathon runner and have been running for decades. I have a neutral foot type and never had any serious running injuries. 

Do you have any recommendations on how to safely choose minimalist running shoes so I can run with a more natural running form to convert to more of a minimalist style?

San Francisco, CA

Hello Peter,

Great question!  There are a number of different types of minimal running shoes that  you can choose from.  But before you can make a reasonable choice on which you would be right for you you have to understand the basics of “minimalist shoes.”

I define a minimalist running shoe as one that has lightweight construction, minimal support and a decreased forefoot to rearfoot drop. 

In case you’re not familiar with minimalist running shoe construction is important to point out that the “ forefoot to rearfoot drop” is the difference in height of the heel as compared to the forefoot. Standing barefoot is a 0° drop.  A running shoe with a zero-degree drop is flat. Any shoe that has no more supporting material under the heel than under the forefoot will have a 0° drop. 

A standard running shoe has a 12 mm drop. This means that there is 12 mm of material under the heel, lifting the heel up relative to the forefoot.  Proponents of minimalist running argue that all this extra material under your heel is what forces you to land as a heel striker when you run in these type of running shoes.

Vibram FiveFingers® are the shoes that many people think of when they hear about barefoot running.  The argument for this type of shoe is that you get the most sensitive ground feel, and hence a running experience that is the most consistent with true barefoot running. However you are protected by a pliable rubber outsole. These shoes certainly fit the criteria of a minimalist shoe in that they have very little support, they’re very light weight and they have a zero-degree drop (meaning the heel is no higher than the toes.) 

Given that most people are accustomed to walking and running in shoes that have a slightly elevated heel, they can at risk of injuries like Achilles tendinitis and even potentially stress fractures if they switch to rapidly to a barefoot running style.

Men's Kinvara 4

There are other shoes however which will help you learn how to run without the drastic change in forefoot to rearfoot drop.  Another extremely  popular minimalist running shoe is the Saucony Kinvara. The Kinvara has a 4mm drop, is very light (7.7 oz.) and is very supple.  it allows a good ground feel and lends itself the natural running form however it still maintains a modest amount of support. It allows a bit of insurance in the sense that if reform starts to fall apart and you begin to convert into a heel striker you at least have some cushion to protect you.

Another good option is Newton Running shoes. Newton’s are unique in that they have elastomeric lugs under the forefoot that help encourage you to land as more as a forefoot or midfoot striker.  For a neutral runner like yourself, the Newton Gravity Trainer would be a good choice. It weighs 9.1 ounces and has a 3mm forefoot to rearfoot drop. Newton running shoes are designed specifically with the intent to help runners learn how to convert to more of a natural running style. In fact Danny Abshire, the founder of the company is also authored a book which helps teach runners to convert their running style away from heel striking to potentially more efficient stride. 

I think Danny has the right approach. I myself run in Newton running shoes for speed workouts and for tempo runs.

However I also incorporate a couple of different kinds of running shoes based on the workouts that I am doing. I run in Kinvaras for some moderate runs.  I also run a more of a typical cushioning type of running shoe when I do long runs, or any run where I expect that I might walk. Reason for this is simple. Most people it is spent their lives in elevated heel shoes can develop a tight Achilles tendon. Walking in shoes with a 0° drop can lead to Achilles tendinitis quite rapidly. As someone who trains continually and almost always has an Ironman on the schedule I can afford to develop any issues. I consider using multiple types of running shoes as cross training for my feet. I believe it decreases the risk of injury.

If barefoot running form is a new adventure I hope you will find it to be helpful in developing a more efficient stride and ultimately a more enjoyable running experience. 

Dr. Christopher Segler, DPM is a marathon runner, 11-time Ironman triathlon finisher and is Board Certified,  American Board of Podiatric Medicine.  He lectures at medical conferences to help teach other podiatrists and sports medicine doctors about barefoot running biomechanics and the treatment of competent running injuries. His practice is limited to runners and triathletes. He performs remote consultations for runners all over the world via telephone and Skype. He also sees patients in person in both San Francisco, CA and Houston, TX.  If you have a question about a running injury that doesn't seem to be getting better, you can reach him directly at 415-308-0833. 

Sunday, May 26, 2013

Heel Blister: To Pop or Not To Pop?


Hi Dr. Segler,

I've had this blister on my heel for the past three days and it has gotten slightly larger.  I'm wondering if I should allow more time for it to heal or pop, drain, etc?  What's the fastest way to get it healed?

Ryan M. 
San Francisco, CA


Hello Ryan,

A blister on the inside of the heel can be painful when running or even walking.  If you are currently training for a marathon, the last thing you want to do is stop running just because you have a blister on your heel.  But obviously the blister has to stop getting bigger before it is going to heal.

There are only a couple of reasons that a blister continues to get bigger.

1. Friction. If you are continuing to rub the inside of the heel in the same way that cause the blister to form in the first place, the blister will continue to get bigger.

2. Compression. If you repeatedly press on the blister,  the fluid with in the blessed blister will try to disperse outward. Since the fluid is all contained inside the blister, this will continue to separate the layers of the skin from the pressure applied to the blister when the fluid tries to move. This causes the blister to continue to enlarge.

The redness at the border of blister tells me that the fluid is being compressed and further separating the layers of the skin (indicated by red arrows). This of course hurts and makes the heel blister bigger.

If you pop or drain the blister, it will increase the risk of infection. If you pop (or drain) the blister it will feel slightly better in the short term, but it might take slightly longer to completely heal.  As long as all of the irritation to the blister is removed, your body will resorb the blister fluid and heal the blister.

The blister in these images appears to be flat enough that it could be offloaded with some simple pads that could be obtained from a local pharmacy.  The idea is to place felt pads around the blister. By removing the pressure that is being applied to the blister when you walk, it will stop enlarging and it will start to calm down.

If a pad is applied to the heel, it will place all of the pressure around the blister, instead of on the blister. This will significantly decrease both the compression and friction of the blister.  If the oval pads that you find at the pharmacy are not large enough, you can simply cut two of them in half and then apply two separate half-oval pads to completely surround and protect the blister.

Here is an image of the proper pad placement with the red area indicating a blister:

Once the blister has completely healed your next task will be to identify the cause of the blister.  Obviously will not want this to happen again. If you have just gotten a new pair of shoes you want to make sure to break and then more gradually the next time. If your shoes were to loose, obviously want to tie them slightly tighter so that your heel isn't sliding around inside the running shoe. And if the blister happened after running a race (where you were dumping water on your head to stay cool) or from running in the rain, you want to make sure that you avoid getting your feet as wet the next time.

Heal that heel fast so that you can get back to running!

Dr. Christopher Segler, DPM is a runner, 11-time Ironman triathlon finisher and is Board Certified,  American Board of Podiatric Medicine.  His practice is limited to runners, triathletes and other active young adults. He travels frequently lecturing to other physicians at podiatry conferences about the treatment of complicated running injuries.  He performs remote consultations for runners all over the world via telephone and Skype. He also sees patients in person in both San Francisco, CA and Houston, TX.  If you have a question about a running injury that doesn't seem to be getting better, you can reach him directly at 415-308-0833. 

Sunday, May 12, 2013

3 Reasons to x-ray a stress fracture from running.

Dear MyRunningDoc, 

I have been ramping up my mileage as part of my marathon training. My foot has been sore and aching when I run. Someone told me that stress fractures don't normally show up on an x-ray until they start healing. If this is true, is there really any point to getting an x-ray if I think I did get a stress fracture from running too much?  

Adam J.
Houston, TX

Great question!  This is a question I often hear from runners in San Francisco and Houston. Most runners are busy and don't wont to waste their time going to a podiatry office getting an x-ray of their foot unless they really think the x-ray will change what they need to do to get the foot to stop aching and  heal. (And of course, get back to running and training). But when you suspect a stress fracture, there are good reasons to get an xray.

3 reasons to get an x-ray of your foot if you think that you have a stress fracture.

The 1st reason to get an xray of your foot is to make sure that the metatarsal has not actually cracked all the way through the bone or broken into pieces. 

The 2nd reason is to confirm that the metatarsal, if it is broken, is still in a good position that will heal correctly. If the bone is moved out of place after it has broken that it will not heal correctly and will result in what doctors call a “malunion.” When the metatarsal bone heals in an abnormal position it will alter the way that forces are distributed across the ball of the foot. An unnatural distribution of forces across the ball of the foot will put other metatarsals at risk of problems later. It can also increase the chances of nerve compression that can lead to a neuroma

The 3rd reason to get an xray of your foot when you suspect you have a stress fracture is for peace of mind. Having an x-ray confirms that the bone is not actually broken and will not likely get worse if you are walking on the foot as it heals. A fracture walking boot is made to protect a stress fracture and allow you to walk while the bone heals.  if you have had an xray of the foot and confirmed that the bone is not completely broken, and you suspect that it is just a stress fracture, then you can treat it as such and feel confident you’re not going to make things significantly worse if you walk on the foot while protected in a fracture walking boot.

Dr. Christopher Segler, D.P.M. is board certified, American Board of Podiatric Medicine. Because he is an active marathon runner and 10-time Ironman triathlon finisher, his practice focuses exclusively on helping runners get back to running as quickly as possible. He travels back and forth between San Francisco, Houston, and Hawaii so he can often to help Texas and California patients with running injuries.  He also provides web consultations via Skype for injured runners who who are too busy to drive to a podiatry office. If you are in San Francisco and have a question about a running injury, you can reach him directly at 415-308-0833. If you live in Houston and think you have a stress fracture, your can call him at 713-489-7674. Visit our Houston Doc On The Run Practice. Learn more about stress fractures here.

Friday, May 3, 2013

Is this black toenail fungus or a bruised toenail from running?

I have been training for a trail run and have been running on lots of hills in Marin. I recently noticed that I was getting some dark black discoloration of my toenail. I am worried that this might be black toenail fungus infecting the toenail. How can I tell whether the toe is bruised or if I really have a toenail fungus infection? Also, what if anything should I do to treat the black toenail if it is infected?

David, Mill Valley, CA

Black toenails are likely one of the most common injuries I see in runners in Houston and San Francisco. There can be a couple of causes of black toenails from running.

Differences between a bruised toenail and a fungal toenail:
A bruised toenail hurts because 1) there is bruise 2) there is blood under the toenail increasing pressure between the toenail and underlying nail bed. This causes pain in the toenail when you press on it or bump the toenail on the inside of your shoes. Fungal toenails are not usually tender unless the toenail infection has been present long enough to make the fungal nail really thick.  The increased thickness can cause some tenderness, but it doesn't happen quickly.

A bruise comes on quickly, but a toenail fungus infection appears gradually. Bruising will appear within a day or two of your long run, race or whatever injury to the toenail. If you kick a coffee table once with your toe, the toenail may develop a bruise and turn black. If you bump the toe inside your running shoe repeatedly while running down hill (or because the running shoes are too tight) you can also get a bruised black toenail from the cumulative trauma. This can happen overnight.  You wake up and the toenail is black.

The changes in the toenail caused by toenail fungus happen very slowly. The color of the toenail will not change quickly.  The increased thickness, yellow discoloration, white crumbly appearance and dark color of a fungal toenail infection happens so slowly that it is almost hard to notice.

You can learn more about black toenails and toenail fungus treatment here by reading about an example of a black toenail in Houston that actually is just a toenail bruise. You can also read about from runners, blisters and black toenails here.  Learn how a bruised toenail can lead to a toenail fungus infection.

Dr. Christopher Segler, Doctor of Podiatric Medicine is Board Certified, American Board of Podiatric Medicine. He is a 10-time Ironman finisher and marathon runner. He lectures frequently to other podiatrist and foot specialists at medical conferences on the treatment of complicated running injuries and running biomechanics. He is licensed to practice podiatry in Texas, California, and Hawaii. He travels back and forth between Houston and San Francisco to see injured runners who have running injuries that need the fastest treatment based on a runner's goals and running doc perspective. If you live in San Francisco or Marin and have a running injury question call 415-308-0833 to speak to him. If you are in Houston and have a question about a running injury, call him directly at 713-489-7674